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Outage Analyses

UltraDNS DDoS Affects Major Web Services

By Nick Kephart
| | 7 min read


Note: Looking for analysis of the October 15th, 2015 UltraDNS outage? See it here.

Yesterday we woke up to alerts going off across a wide range of web services. In some cases, ThousandEyes employees weren’t able to access tools we use internally, such as RingCentral and Salesforce. We knew something big was up and dug into our tests to find out what was going on. Here’s what we saw and how we tracked the unfolding situation.

Alarms Go Off

Starting at 8:15am on Wednesday April 30th, service availability alerts started going off across a range of services that we track, including: ServiceMax, RingCentral, Veeva Systems and Salesforce. While these services were still generally available to users, particularly those with active sessions, new logins were in some cases affected.

A look at the HTTP Server view in Figure 1, showing service availability for ServiceMax, a field service management SaaS, shows the issues beginning. Our agents, which pull ‘fresh’ non-cached DNS records for performance tests, show DNS resolution failing for over 60% of locations. This view, combined with similar ones for other affected services, clued us in to a widespread UltraDNS issue.

UltraDNS DDoS outage affects ServiceMax
Figure 1: ServiceMax, hosted on Salesforce’s CloudForce platform, saw availability issues resulting from the UltraDNS DDoS for over 12 hours, from 8:15am to 9pm Pacific. Here shown at 9am Pacific.

UltraDNS Outage

It quickly became apparent that service interruptions were related to an outage by UltraDNS, a DNS service offered by Neustar that powers a number of important web services and applications, including ServiceMax. We tracked this by diving into the DNS Server view, which gives us an understanding of how many authoritative name servers are available and resolving the hostname.

Figure 2 shows the authoritative name servers for ServiceMax, the same that are used for Salesforce as ServiceMax is hosted on the Salesforce platform. For several hours, a majority of the DNS servers were unable to resolve hostnames, and those that were saw up to a 10X increase in resolution time.

UltraDNS outage ServiceMax Salesforce
Figure 2: The DNS servers for ServiceMax rely on UltraDNS. During the worst parts of the outage, around 10am Pacific, we found more than 90% of requests were failing, including 100% of those with UltraDNS domains.

We see a similar issue with RingCentral, which also uses UltraDNS, in Figure 3.

UltraDNS DDoS Outage RingCentral
Figure 3: DNS for RingCentral’s VOIP gateways are impacted for nearly 3 hours.

Looking further, we can see from a network metrics view that there is high packet loss occurring en route to UltraDNS from all of our agent locations. Figure 4 shows more than 50% packet loss to UltraDNS servers and UltraDNS hosted servers, such as the one for ServiceMax and Salesforce.

UltraDNS DDoS Outage
Figure 4: High levels of packet loss occurred from around the world when reaching UltraDNS servers. The DDoS attack was most intense between 8am and 7pm Pacific, though some servers, like the one above, were only affected for a subset of the time.

DDoS Fingerprints

Looking further into the situation, we can see that the outage was actually being caused by a DDoS attack on UltraDNS. We are tipped off about this from the sudden, severe and widespread packet loss that we saw in the previous view. To validate this we can use a path visualization of packets from our agents to UltraDNS servers.

Figure 5 reveals the DDoS attack, with traffic flowing through scrubbing centers (highlighted with dotted lines) that filter out attack traffic. One scrubbing center appeared to be performing well (blue circle), enabling DNS resolution from the Western US and international locations. Another (red circle), is causing significant packet loss and DNS resolution problems for Eastern US locations. UltraDNS has confirmed that this was indeed a DDoS.

UltraDNS DDoS Outage Path Visualization
Figure 5: A path visualization to UltraDNS servers (light green on right) shows traffic transiting scrubbing centers, one operating normally (blue dotted circle) and one causing significant packet loss for Eastern and Central US locations (red dotted circle).

Troubleshooting DNS and DDoS

All in all, the UltraDNS outage impacted customers for up to 13 hours, from 8am to 9pm Pacific. With DDoS attacks becoming ever more powerful and creating large-scale disruptions, it is important to monitor your key services such as DNS. Tools such as DNS Server tests and path visualization help you keep an eye on unfolding service outages to plan a proper response. If you’re interested in learning more about how DDoS attacks affect service availability, check out previous posts on Visualizing Cloud-Based DDoS Mitigation and Using ThousandEyes to Analyze a DDoS Attack on GitHub.

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